PreviousINDEXNext
Upgrading to OpenBSD-currentEmacs startup delay on Windows 7

Migrating to a mirror raid on Debian

The bootleg server, orchid, I run at work finally died a death, It ran Debian Squeeze the hardware a very cheap AMD system, hand-built in 2003. One day I could no longer connect to it via the VPN. This could have been caused be someone accidently unplugging its ethernet cable, but when I could finally get in front the machine, I found it continually looping in the BIOS startup. I powered off, and tried to power on. Lights came on but nothing on the screen. Ah well, nine years of continual running from a cheap consumer-grade PC was pretty good.

Through the good offices of a colleague in the IT department, I was able to take possession a no-longer used Dell server. This gave me a two core 2.8GHz Pentium with 2GB of main memory. Luxury! There was only one slight snag; it supported SATA disks, but the disks from orchid were PATA. However, it did have one IDE PATA connector for the CDROM drive. I attached the orchid drives to this. The IDE ribbon connector was not long enough to allow the drives to sit in the enclosures, so I had to let them sit loose on a convenient shelf inside the case.

Acid test time - would it boot? First attempt hung in the BIOS, which complained about a missing disk (the existing SATA drive I had removed). Turned the SATA drive off in the BIOS and, lo, orchid lived again.

The PATA disks were now the oldest things in the machine, and likely next to go. I therefore bought two 320GB SATA drives with the aim of having mirrored disks, replacing the existing PATA drives (which totalled 240GB).

First, I installed mdadm that also caused a rebuild of the initrd so that the mdadm stuff would be available during kernel boot.

I decided I would use the ability of md devices to support partitions to create one big mirror and then carve it up into the root, boot, usr etc partitions. A single partition was created on each of the two disks using cfdisk. The result is shown below, in parted output format.

  orchid:~# parted /dev/sdc
  GNU Parted 2.3
  Using /dev/sdc
  Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
  (parted) p
  Model: ATA Maxtor 7L320S0 (scsi)
  Disk /dev/sdc: 324GB
  Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
  Partition Table: msdos

  Number  Start   End    Size   Type     File system  Flags
   1      32.3kB  324GB  324GB  primary  ext3         raid

  (parted)
  orchid:~# parted /dev/sdd
  GNU Parted 2.3
  Using /dev/sdd
  Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
  (parted) p
  Model: ATA Maxtor 7L320S0 (scsi)
  Disk /dev/sdd: 324GB
  Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
  Partition Table: msdos

  Number  Start   End    Size   Type     File system  Flags
   1      32.3kB  324GB  324GB  primary  ext3         raid

Next step was to create the mirror (RAID1) array:

  orchid:~# mdadm --create --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1
  orchid:~# mdadm --detail /dev/md0
  /dev/md0:
          Version : 1.2
    Creation Time : Wed Feb 29 15:30:27 2012
       Raid Level : raid1
       Array Size : 316334723 (301.68 GiB 323.93 GB)
    Used Dev Size : 316334723 (301.68 GiB 323.93 GB)
     Raid Devices : 2
    Total Devices : 2
      Persistence : Superblock is persistent

      Update Time : Fri Mar  2 08:34:15 2012
            State : clean
   Active Devices : 2
  Working Devices : 2
   Failed Devices : 0
    Spare Devices : 0

             Name : orchid:0  (local to host orchid)
             UUID : 482da84a:8fdc30de:b2acf8c8:fc8e97d6
           Events : 46

      Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
         0       8       33        0      active sync   /dev/sdc1
         1       8       49        1      active sync   /dev/sdd1

Or another way of looking at the array:

  orchid:~# cat /proc/mdstat
  Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
  md0 : active raid1 sdc1[0] sdd1[1]
        316334723 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]

  unused devices: <none>

The array was then partioned using cfdisk. The resulting set of partition is shown below (using parted as it provides a more pleasing listing format)

  orchid:~# parted /dev/md0
  GNU Parted 2.3
  Using /dev/md0
  Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
  (parted) p
  Model: Linux Software RAID Array (md)
  Disk /dev/md0: 324GB
  Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
  Partition Table: msdos

  Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system     Flags
   1      2048B   500MB   500MB   primary   ext3            boot
   2      500MB   1524MB  1024MB  primary   ext3
   3      1524MB  2548MB  1024MB  primary   linux-swap(v1)
   4      2548MB  324GB   321GB   extended
   5      2548MB  3048MB  500MB   logical   ext3
   6      3048MB  4072MB  1024MB  logical   ext3
   7      4072MB  10.2GB  6144MB  logical   ext3
   8      10.2GB  133GB   123GB   logical   ext3
   9      133GB   324GB   191GB   logical   ext3

The third step required the copying of the existing partition data on the PATA drives to the new mirrored version. I wrote a shell script to automate this process, shown below:

#!/bin/sh
#
# NAME
#
#   clone-part.sh - Script to automate cloning of existing disk partions to
#                   a new device 
#
# SYNOPSIS
#
#   sh clone-parts.sh -t target [-n] [-l label-prefix] [-p parts]
#
#   Switches:
#     -t target         Set target device name, e.g. sdc, md or md0p
#     -l label-prefix   Set label prefix for partitions on new device
#     -p parts          Set partition-id mountpoint relationship
#     -n                Just show what would be done
#
# DESCRIPTION 
#
#   clone-parts.sh provides a capability to clone the contents of
#   mounted partitons to another disk. It accepts a mapping from the
#   current mount points to partition identifiers (partids) (it is
#   possible to override a built-in default mapping using the -p
#   argument.  
#
#   Partition mappings are specfied by a string of the following
#   format:
#
#   "<partition-id>=<mount-point> [<partition-id>=<mount-point>] ..."
#
#   The default partition mappings are specified in the shell script,
#   i.e.:
#     PARTS="1=/boot 2=/ 3=swap 5=/tmp 6=/var 7=/usr 8=/home 9=/rep" 
#
#   This default can be overridden on the command line using the "-p"
#   switch.
#
#   An ext3 filesystem is created on each partition. The new
#   filesystems are labelled, according to a prefix (default "raid")
#   followed by the mount-point name (e.g. raid-boot).  A mount-point
#   of "/" is converted to "root".  Leading "/" characters are removed
#   from mount-point names when using them as a component of partition
#   labels.  The prefix and postfix are separated by "-".
#
#   The rsync utility is invoked to copy the contents of the source
#   partition (as identifed by the <mount-point> token) to the target
#   partition.  Each new parition is mounted on the /mnt mount point.
#
#   The "-n" switchs request clone-part.sh to emit the generated
#   commands to stdout, rather than actualy executing them.
#
#   MPW 3rd March, 2012

EXEC=eval
SCRIPT=${0##*/}
TARGET=""
PARTS="1=/boot 2=/ 3=swap 5=/tmp 6=/var 7=/usr 8=/home 9=/rep" 
LABPREFIX="raid"

query() {
    echo -n "$SCRIPT: $1  OK to continue? (y/n): "
    read cont
    if [ $cont != "y" ]; then
        echo "${SCRIPT}: Terminated."
        exit 1
    fi
}

die() {
    echo "${SCRIPT}: $1  Terminating..."
    exit 1
}

while [ $# -gt 0 ]; do
   case $1 in
       -t)
           TARGET=$2
           shift
           ;;
       -p)
           PARTS=$2
           shift
           ;;
       -n)
           EXEC=echo
           ;;
       -l)
           LABPREFIX=$2
           shift
           ;;
       *)
           die "unrecognised switch: $1."
           ;;
   esac;
   shift
done

if [ "${TARGET}" = "" ]; then
    die " no target specified."
fi

for part in $PARTS
do
    partid=${part%=*}
    mntpoint=${part#*=}
    if [ ${mntpoint} = "swap" ] ; then
        echo "${SCRIPT}: making swap space on ${TARGET}${partid}"
        ${EXEC} mkswap /dev/${TARGET}${partid}
        continue;
    fi
    if [ ${mntpoint} = "/" ]; then
        labelname="root"
    else
        labelname=`echo ${mntpoint}|sed -e 's/\///g'`
    fi
    ${EXEC} mkfs -t ext3 -L ${LABPREFIX}-${labelname} /dev/${TARGET}${partid}
    if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
        die " mkfs error."
    fi
    ${EXEC} mount -t ext3 /dev/${TARGET}${partid} /mnt
    if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
        die " unable to mount ${TARGET}${partid}."
    fi
    echo "${SCRIPT}: rsyncing ${mntpoint} to ${TARGET}${partid} ..."
    # rsync flags: -a, archive, -u, update, -H, preserve hard links
    #              -x, don't cross file system boundaries
    ${EXEC} rsync -auHx --exclude=/proc/* --exclude=/sys/*  ${mntpoint}/ /mnt
    if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
        die "error rsyncing partition ${mntpoint}."
    fi
    ${EXEC} umount /mnt
done

This was run as follows (the defaults conveniently match my use case):

  sh clone-parts.sh -t md0p

The /etc/fstab file on the RAID was changed to reflect the mirrored disks:

  orchid:~# more /mnt/etc/fstab
  # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
  #
  # <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
  proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
  LABEL=raid-root /               ext3    errors=remount-ro 0       1
  LABEL=raid-boot /boot           ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-home /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-rep  /rep            ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-tmp  /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-usr  /usr            ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-var  /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
  /dev/md3        none            swap    sw              0       0
  /dev/cdrom      /media/cdrom0   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0
  /dev/fd0        /media/floppy0  auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0

Booting with GRUB2

Now we enter black art territory. There seems to be no formal documentation on how to boot raid disks using GRUB2 (apart from that "GRUB 2 can read files directly from LVM and RAID devices.", stated in the GNU GRUB2 manual).

I re-configured grub-pc so that I could install it on all the hard drives, via:

  dpkg-reconfigure grub-pc

That seemed to work, and it also auto-generated an entry for kernel on the mirrored partition. However, the stanza was not what I wanted, as it passed the existing PATA-based root partition to the kernel, not the mirrored version.

So, from reading various web pages, here's how I set up the GRUB2 stanza for booting from the mirror, in the /etc/grub.d/40_custom file, designed for that very purpose:

  menuentry "Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 2.6.32-5-686 (RAID1 /dev/md0)" {
          insmod raid
          insmod mdraid
          insmod part_msdos
          insmod ext2
          set root='(md0,1)'
          search --no-floppy --label --set raid-boot
          linux /vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686 root=LABEL=raid-root
          initrd /initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
  }

The insmod lines ensure that the mdraid aware code is available to grub. The search command populates the root environment variable with the grub disk name corresponding to the device labelled with "raid-root". Kind of makes the preceeding set command a bit surperflous.

I performed a test boot off the raid array, which worked, but showed I had buggered up the rsync copy to the mirror (missing "/" after ${mntpoint} in the rsync command, if you must know). I rebooted into the normal system to find that the mirror was marked as "(auto-read-only)" and "resync=PENDING". I suspect this was due to me using the reboot command, which did not allow the array to shutdown cleanly. The resync can be restarted by issuing the command:

  mdadm --readwrite /dev/md0

I fixed the files on the mirror and then fiddled around with the grub defaults. I invoked update-grub to generate a new grub.cfg file:

  orchid:~# update-grub
  Generating grub.cfg ...
  Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686
  Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
  Found Debian GNU/Linux (6.0.4) on /dev/md0p2
  /usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: no such disk.
  /usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: no such disk.
  done

Not good. As an attempt to fix, I ran the following command:

  orchid:~# grub-mkdevicemap --no-floppy

With not much success. Well, it was different, I suppose.

  orchid:~# update-grub
  Generating grub.cfg ...
  Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686
  Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
  Found Debian GNU/Linux (6.0.4) on /dev/md0p2
  /usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: unknown filesystem.
  done

This error has been reported as Debian bug 567618 and supposed fixed in grub-pc 1.98+20100804-14+squeeze1, so maybe this is a different problem. Further research indicated it was caused by problems grub has with md partitions. So, back to square one. I decided to use a different mirroring scheme; create multiple partitions on each physical device and then mirror each partition.

Second Attempt

OK, back to the beginning. First, I had to stop and destroy the current array:

  mdadm --stop /dev/md0
  mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1

I created a bunch of partitions on /dev/sdc, as shown below:

  orchid:~# parted /dev/sdc
  GNU Parted 2.3
  Using /dev/sdc
  Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
  (parted) p
  Model: ATA Maxtor 7L320S0 (scsi)
  Disk /dev/sdc: 324GB
  Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
  Partition Table: msdos

  Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
   1      32.3kB  502MB   502MB   primary   ext3         boot
   2      502MB   1522MB  1020MB  primary                raid
   3      1522MB  2542MB  1020MB  primary                raid
   4      2542MB  324GB   321GB   extended
   5      2542MB  3043MB  502MB   logical                raid
   6      3043MB  4063MB  1020MB  logical                raid
   7      4063MB  10.2GB  6144MB  logical                raid
   8      10.2GB  133GB   123GB   logical                raid
   9      133GB   324GB   191GB   logical                raid

The partition setup was cloned to the other disk (/dev/sdd), using sfdisk:

  orchid:~# sfdisk -d /dev/sdc |sfdisk /dev/sdd
  Checking that no-one is using this disk right now ...
  OK

  Disk /dev/sdd: 39382 cylinders, 255 heads, 63 sectors/track
  Old situation:
  Units = cylinders of 8225280 bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes, counting from 0

     Device Boot Start     End   #cyls    #blocks   Id  System
  /dev/sdd1          0+  39381   39382- 316335883+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd2          0       -       0          0    0  Empty
  /dev/sdd3          0       -       0          0    0  Empty
  /dev/sdd4          0       -       0          0    0  Empty
  New situation:
  Units = sectors of 512 bytes, counting from 0

     Device Boot    Start       End   #sectors  Id  System
  /dev/sdd1   *        63    979964     979902  83  Linux
  /dev/sdd2        979965   2972024    1992060  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd3       2972025   4964084    1992060  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd4       4964085 632671829  627707745   5  Extended
  /dev/sdd5       4964148   5944049     979902  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd6       5944113   7936109    1991997  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd7       7936173  19936664   12000492  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd8      19936728 259931699  239994972  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  /dev/sdd9     259931763 632671829  372740067  fd  Linux raid autodetect
  Successfully wrote the new partition table

  Re-reading the partition table ...

  If you created or changed a DOS partition, /dev/foo7, say, then use dd(1)
  to zero the first 512 bytes:  dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/foo7 bs=512 count=1
  (See fdisk(8).)

This time, I planned to leave the boot partition un-mirrored to avoid any flaws in GRUB2. I created a new script, mkmirror.sh to automate the process of creating RAID1 arrays:

#!/bin/sh
#
# NAME
#
#   mkmirror.sh - Script to automate creation of raid1 (mirror) disks
#
# SYNOPSIS
#
#   sh mkmirrr.sh [-d1 dev] [-d2 dev] [-p "partition list"] [-n]
#
#   Switches:
#     -d1 dev              Set first device name, default /dev/sdc
#     -d2 dev              Set second device name, default /dev/sdd
#     -p "partition list"  Define list of partition numbers
#     -n                   Just show what would be done
#
# DESCRIPTION 
#
#   mkmirror.sh simplifies the creation of multiple RAID devices via
#   linux's mdadm utility. md devices are created with the same number
#   as the source partition id.  The script assumes that each source
#   device already contains partitions matching the partition id list.
#   The script contains a in-built list of partition ids.
#
#   Partition ids are specified by space separated numbers, enclosed
#   in double quotes.  The in-built default is:
#
#      "2 3 5 6 7 8 9"
#
#   This default can be overridden on the command line using the "-p"
#   switch.
#
#   The "-n" switch requests mkmirror.sh to emit the generated
#   commands to stdout, rather than actualy executing them.
#
#   MPW 3rd March, 2012

SCRIPT=${0##*/}
DEV1="/dev/sdc"
DEV2="/dev/sdd"
PARTS="2 3 5 6 7 8 9" 
EXEC=eval

die() {
    echo "${SCRIPT}: $1  Terminating..."
    exit 1
}

while [ $# -gt 0 ]; do
    case $1 in
        -d1)
            DEV1=$2
            shift
            ;;
        -d2)
            DEV2=$2
            shift
            ;;
        -p)
            PARTS=$2
            shift
            ;;
        -n)
            EXEC=echo
            ;;
        *)
            die "unrecognised switch: $1."
            ;;
    esac
    shift
done


for partid in $PARTS
do
    echo "${SCRIPT}: making /dev/md${partid} ..."
    # yes used to cater for mdadm sanity check
    ${EXEC} "yes | /sbin/mdadm --create /dev/md${partid} --level=1 --raid-devices=2 ${DEV1}${partid} ${DEV2}${partid}"
    if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
        die " unable to create /dev/md${partid}."
    fi
done

The RAID1 arrays were then created and populated using the two scripts:

  # omit boot partition from the setup ...
  sh mkmirror.sh -d1 /dev/sdc -d2 /dev/sdd -p "2 3 5 6 7 8 9"
  sh clone-parts.sh -t md -p "2=/ 3=swap 5=/tmp 6=/var 7=/usr 8=/home 9=/rep"

/etc/fstab on the new mirrored root partition was modified to mount the mirrored disks:

  orchid:~# mount -t ext3 /dev/md2 /mnt
  orchid:~# cat /mnt/etc/fstab
  # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
  #
  # <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
  proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
  LABEL=raid-root /               ext3    errors=remount-ro 0       1
  LABEL=raid-boot /boot           ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-home /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-rep  /rep            ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-tmp  /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-usr  /usr            ext3    defaults        0       2
  LABEL=raid-var  /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
  /dev/md3        none            swap    sw              0       0
  /dev/cdrom      /media/cdrom0   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0
  /dev/fd0        /media/floppy0  auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0

I populated the boot partitions on both /dev/sdc and /dev/sdd manually (label is the same on both partitions, as I don't really care which one we boot from):

  for disk in c d; do
    mkfs -t ext3 -L raid-boot /dev/sd${disk}1
    mount -t ext3 /dev/sd${disk}1 /mnt
    rsync -auHx /boot/ /mnt
    umount /mnt
  done

With a non-raid boot partition, the GRUB2 boot stanza looks as follows:

  menuentry "Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 2.6.32-5-686 (RAID1 /dev/sdc)" {
          insmod part_msdos
          insmod ext2
          set root='(hd2,msdos1)'
          search --no-floppy --label --set raid-boot
          linux /vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686 root=LABEL=raid-root
          initrd /initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
  }

OK, let's run update-grub again...

  orchid:~# update-grub
  Generating grub.cfg ...
  Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686
  Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
  done

That's much better. Booting GRUB2 from /dev/sda and choosing to boot from the mirrored disks worked. I then re-install GRUB2 on /dev/sdc and /dev/sdd, re-writing the /boot/grub/grub.cfg in the process:

  orchid:~# grub-install /dev/sdc
  orchid:~# grub-install /dev/sdd
  orchid:~# update-grub
  Generating grub.cfg ...
  Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686
  Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
  Found Debian GNU/Linux (6.0.4) on /dev/sda7
  done

As /dev/sdc1 was the partition mounted as boot, I had to copy the new grub.cfg file to /dev/sdd1. I then re-booted and changed the boot order so that the SATA disks preceeded the PATA disks. Yes, it booted, although off /dev/sdd, rather than /dev/sdc as I had expected.

Orchid is now happily running on mirrored disks.

Addendum - Moving /boot to mirrored disks

I decided I didn't like the unmirrored boot partitions (not sufficiently uniform with the other partitions?), so I took the following steps to move to a fully mirrored environment:

Steps to migrate /boot to mirrored raid disks

  1. Boot into /dev/sda1 (the old PATA disk)
  2. Change partition type of /dev/sdc1 to Autoraid detect (x'FD') (ignoring dire warnings from cfdisk)
  3. Build mirror on /dev/sdc1 with second disk missing:
          mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdc1 missing
        
  4. Create ext3 partition on mirror:
          mkfs -t ext3 -L raid-boot /dev/md1 
        
  5. Copy contents of /dev/sdd1 to /dev/md1
  6. Change partition type of /dev/sdd1 to x'FD'
  7. Add /dev/sdd1 to mirror:
          mdadm --add /dev/md1 /dev/sdd1
        
  8. When mirror rebuild completes, boot back into SATA disk setup on the mirrored disks.

The reboot failed, GRUB2 complaining it could not find its files (error: no such disk). I was presented with the GRUB2 rescue prompt. Well, I suppose GRUB2 provides a good field surgical kit when you shoot yourself in the foot.

After a bit of panic research on the internet, I typed ls at the rescue prompt. That gave me a list of drives and partions (e.g.):

  (hd0) (hd0,msdos9) (hd0,msdos8)...

In all, three drives were seen by GRUB2, hd0, hd1 and hd2. Hmm, which was /dev/sda, the old PATA drive? To find out, I used the following commands, trying each drive in turn:

  set prefix=(hd0,msdos1)/grub
  set root=(hd0,msdos1)
  insmod normal

Naturally, the last I tried, hd2, was the one that worked i.e. did not give an error on the insmod normal command. Inserting the normal module provides more facilties at the grub prompt. Invoke it by typing normal at the rescue prompt. If you are lucky (as I was) you will get the GRUB2 menu from the boot (/dev/sda1) partition.

So, what had I forgotten to do in the setup of the mirrored disks? Maybe I should actually install GRUB2 on the boot mirror partition? So, I entered the following command:

  # grub-install /dev/md1

which completed successfully. On reboot, GRUB2 greeted me with the menu from grub/grub.cfg on /dev/md1. Hurrah!

I had to perform the initial boot from the mirrored disk by choosing one of the custom boot stanzas I'd written into the /etc/grub.d/40_custom file (see above), as the default stanza, created by grub-update, still referred to the old /dev/sdd1 UUID (that of course no longer existed). Once I had the mirrored version up, I could issue a grub-update command again, which rewrote the default boot stanza with the correct /dev/md1 UUID value as the value of --fs-uuid in the set command. This is what the result looks like:

  menuentry 'Debian GNU/Linux, with Linux 2.6.32-5-686' --class debian --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
          insmod raid
          insmod mdraid
          insmod part_msdos
          insmod part_msdos
          insmod ext2
          set root='(md/1)'
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 629db29e-e0b6-4ecb-b688-e34db2e6b363
          echo    'Loading Linux 2.6.32-5-686 ...'
          linux   /vmlinuz-2.6.32-5-686 root=UUID=a1a08a38-878e-4709-a040-69fcd383e095 ro printk.time=0 quiet
          echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
          initrd  /initrd.img-2.6.32-5-686
}

And now, df -h gives me:

  Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
  /dev/md2              958M  120M  790M  14% /
  tmpfs                1013M     0 1013M   0% /lib/init/rw
  udev                 1008M  244K 1008M   1% /dev
  tmpfs                1013M     0 1013M   0% /dev/shm
  /dev/md1              464M   27M  413M   7% /boot
  /dev/md8              113G   60G   48G  57% /home
  /dev/md9              175G   33G  134G  20% /rep
  /dev/md5              464M   11M  430M   3% /tmp
  /dev/md7              5.7G  930M  4.5G  17% /usr
  /dev/md6              958M  201M  709M  23% /var

Now everything is much more regular.

PreviousINDEXNext
Upgrading to OpenBSD-currentEmacs startup delay on Windows 7